Environmental management has been a great issue in this age of industrial development, since in each of an industrial process there is release of waste products. The aim of environmental management is therefore important in reduction of industrial emissions into our environment causing pollution effects. The effects of these industrial emissions are varied from mild to severe; depending on how they enter the atmosphere, that is, they may be in different states of matter.
Wastes emitted from industrial production may lead to pollution of soil contaminants and its micro-organisms, may be water pollutants, or volatile air pollutants factors which has led to need for development of a multimedia approach for describing procedures of managing these industrial effluents.
The effects of these emitted pollutants include; water pollution, depletion of natural resources such as marine lives, and a lot of human hazard on procedures of waste management and solid waste disposal, air pollution leading to formation of smog, global warming mainly due to the emission of carbon dioxide gas, acid rain and depletion of ozone layer.
These effects are not limited to local areas where these industrial emissions are produced but impacts is usually felt on a regional or international basis, a factor which has created need for the development and enactment of some environmental laws. To manage and control these adverse impacts of environmental pollution, the industry is required to enact their environmental management program.
In the first case scenario where effluents and solids are the major types of wastes, I would follow the requirements of Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) under permission by NPDES (a body which gives permit to industry after proper waste water treatment) in formulating pollution prevention program. This will comprise proper management of the effluents (which will be both solid and liquid emissions) before they leave into the storm waters system and good water waste treatment. This can be done through the following;
First the public Marina and boatyard will make sure that there is proper process development and design in preliminary engineering.
This allows for smooth movement of the effluents and other waste materials leading to decrease of amounts of wastes produced in the premises.
To develop and implement efficient pollution prevention programs, one has to be equipped with the knowledge of all boatyard operations, the drainage systems of the washing and painting areas, water and oil products treatment processes and even types of by-products emitted by the restaurant. The information will give people in the immediate environment and workers, a clear and explicit identity of environmentally associated procedures and thus develop objectives and constraints of pollution prevention program.
The program will be divided into three areas namely; waste water treatment procedures, solid waste management and sludge management.
Proper waste water treatment should be the basis of this program as most of the waste such as oil wastes, paints, solvent materials and resigns. The water will be checked for levels of acidity as some water may be acidic or others alkaline, amounts of oxygen consuming sludge deposits and oxygen-depleting organic materials (BOD5), levels of eutrophication nutrients and toxic substances in these waste waters. Water with heavy metals should not be allowed to mix with that from the other sources since if biological methods are used then micro-organisms will be subdued from standard functioning.
Thus waste waters of different acidity or alkalinity should not be mixed, because chemicals reactions which can occur afterwards may cause harmful health hazards, for instance acidic waters if mixed with water containing sodium cyanide & hydrogen cyanide gas is released which is very lethal. Since all of these by-products are not allowed for treatment to enter into the Public Owned Treatment Waters, then they would be treated separately at our plants. Usually the initial and crucial thing is to describe the importance of a clean and pollution free environment to the customers and workers of the marina and thus they will positively assist in correct waste disposal.
With wastes such as old cans, cracked garbage containers in the Marina environment ways of proper management of these solid waste products may be necessary especially for workers. The waste should therefore be managed by either of the following procedures: use of sanitary landfills, Incineration of the solid materials, composting the biodegradable and developing resource recovery systems in the marina.
Due to the high costs of collection and management of solid wastes in the marina, there will be need to enlighten the community and facility users on the importance of recycling and decreased waste emission as they will enormously reduce these costs.
Waste buckets should be put in place around the entire premise and people should be able to reach them in addition to having good waste disposal habits within the facility. The sanitary landfills should contain an impervious lining around the laid waste to avoid chances of emitting leakage materials into ground water or subsoil. Incineration can also be used for the non-biodegradable materials such as metallic objects, cans and wires to enhance their full combustion but this may later on cause air pollution because harmful gases are released.
Materials released in the process of waste treatment such as sediments and precipitates, can also create a problem in the overall waste management. This may require dewatering of these materials into levels which are manageable through additional waste processing by the use of scrubbers, cyclones and bag house filters.
Paul L. Bishop, (2002), Pollution Prevention-Fundamental and Practice, Published by ISBN 7302051356, 9787302051350, retrieved on February 26, 2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=Rit8KY_bMmcC&pg=PA326&lpg=PA326&dq=%.