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Essay Sample Of Stem Cell Research

15 Jun 2017Essay Samples

Research coverage should qualify in the Eligibility Criteria for Federal Funding of Research on Human Embryonic Stem Cells of the National Institute of Health (NIH) as established by President George W. Bush in August 9, 2001.

According to The National Institutes of Health Resource for Stem Cell Research, the following are the criteria for approval of research proposals:

  • The derivation process (which begins with the destruction of the embryo) was initiated prior to 9:00 P.M. EDT on August 9, 2001.
  • The stem cells must have been derived from an embryo that was created for reproductive purposes and was no longer needed. 
  • Informed consent must have been obtained for the donation of the embryo and that donation must not have involved financial inducements (para.2). 
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo (The White House, 2001).
  • Embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a human embryo have the latent ability to develop into all or nearly all of the tissues in the body thus it is termed “pluripotentiality" characteristic of stem cells.
  • Adult stem cells are unspecialized, thus, they can restore its own by becoming specialized and have the potential to be any type of cell.
  • Many researchers and scientists believe that embryonic stem cell research can be used in the future for the treatment of various diseases which are incurable as of the present. Said 
  • stem cells may replace destroyed or dysfunctional cells and tissues caused by untreatable disease conditions.

Implementation

  • Bulk of the responsibility for the realization of research programs falls on the hands of the National Institutes of Health which is the main implementing agency of most federal funding for biomedical research.
  • An NIH Stem Cell Task Force was created to decide on the paramount uses of the public funds for research as well as the resources needed to use such funds effectively 
  • Establishing of human embryonic stem cell lines eligible for funding though according to President Bush, “more than sixty genetically diverse stem cell lines” (or stem cell preparations) are existing and available as early as 2001.
  • The process of making lines available to federally funded researchers involves negotiating a contractual agreement (a “materials transfer agreement”) with the companies or institutions owning the cell lines, establishing guidelines for payment, intellectual property rights over resulting techniques or treatments, and other essential legal assurances between the provider and the recipient (The President's Council on Bioethics, 2004).
  • The NIH Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Review Group (HPSCRG) is tasked to review the documents submitted if recommending agencies have complied with the Guidelines for funding requests proposing the utilization of human pluripotent stem cells.
  • In the case of new or competing continuation (renewal) or competing supplement applications, all applications shall be reviewed by HPSCRG and for scientific merit by a Scientific Review Group (NIH, 2000).

An annual report is gathered by NIH which comprise of applications and proposals examined and the titles of all grants, approvals for the application of funds on hand as well as intramural undertakings.

Evaluation

  • Ethical debates have been raised by the church stating that fertilization is said to be the beginning of life and intrusion to this natural process is deemed unethical.
  • To date, adult stem cell research, which is federally-funded, has resulted in the development of a variety of therapeutic treatments for diseases (The White House, 2001).
  • In the aspect of health, stem cell-research is the new hope for cure to various health ailments such as diabetes, cardiac (heart) problems, recovery from chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants, neurodegenerative diseases including Sandhoff, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease, bladder problems, skin disintegration and many other conditions. 
  • Extension of approved stem lines in ethically conscientious methods.

References

National Institutes of Health. (2000, August 17). Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from 
http://stemcells.nih.gov/staticresources/news/newsArchives/fr25au00-136.asp.
The National Institutes of Health Resource for Stem Cell Research. (2007, June 6). Stem Cell Information. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from http://stemcells.nih.gov/.
The President's Council on Bioethics. (2004). Monitoring Stem Cell Research. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from http://www.bioethics.gov/reports/stemcell/chapter2.html. 
The White House. (2001). Fact Sheet: Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Retrieved July 31, 2007, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/08/print/20010809-1.html.

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