Responsibility in relation to age; To understand responsibility as far as people and age are concerned it is important to know what it really means to be responsible as well as responsible for what. The past actions are very important parameters to the responsibility of an individual. Responsibility applies to the practice of holding an individual for the past actions and therefore it applies that responsibility is related to age. It is basically expected that a human adult is the one expected to be held responsible for the actions of the past. The actions that bring about this concept are determined by the extent of interaction of this individual in the past, something that has a time factor and therefore age is crucial to understanding responsibility (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
To raise the issue of responsibility either of an individual or of an institution such as the government, time is very important The character has to undergo through a series of activities, a process that requires some appreciable time, and this is the real essence of age. The most appropriate conclusion to make after the consideration of age in relation to responsibility is therefore that responsibility arises from age. When we consider the responsibilities of a parent in response to the care of a child, we expect that the two are of different age, off course the parent being advanced in relation to the child. It is the duty of a normal mature adult person to be a responsible agent and this status is only achievable as a result of age (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Responsibility is a factor of age
Strongly agree ------------------------------------------12
Tend to agree ------------------------------------------24
Do not agree or disagree -----------------------------30
Will most likely agree----------------------------------22
Totally disagree ---------------------------------------8
Thurstone scale: Entails a procedure that attitudes of respondents are determined in one dimension through the indication of their compliance or non compliance to some set statements oriented to that particular attitude. Most of the statements are parallel to the attitude while some others are skewed to the extreme side as far as the scope of the argument is concerned. It is important that the researcher is assured of the respondents possession of an idea at the time of generating a statement. similarly, the technical language that has been used as well as acronyms should be clearly understood .
A typical Thurstone scale is as follows;
Tick as appropriate:
- aged people are wise -----------
- age comes with responsibility-----------
- responsible people have advanced age -----------
- all of us will age in future -----------
- it is because of age that we are mature -----------
- age is a positive good -----------
- it is natural to age -----------
- age is not desirable -----------
- age is diverse in various countries ----------
- age is a factor of economic wellbeing -----------
- age determines wealth -----------
- ability is determined by age -----------
- the health of an individual improves with age -----------
- people with advanced age are more skilled -----------
(John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Guttman scale: This scale is also referred to as the cumulative scaling as well as scalogram analysis. It involves the use of statistics when conducting a survey whereby a structured questionare involving survey items in a subset is used. The items of this scale consists of binary answers, that is either a yes or a no and they are put in a particular order such that a response pattern to a rational respondent is captured using only one index in the scale. A respondent who is compliant to one item is likewise compliant to a lower order item. This scale allows for a perfect prediction of the responses to items. A typical example of this scale is as follows;
Tick yes or no to the following questions;
- Is responsibility beneficial to an individual?--------
- Is responsibility beneficial in the family?--------
- Is responsibility beneficial in the neighborhood?--------
- Is responsibility beneficial in the societ-------
- Is responsibility beneficial in the entire life of an individual?-------
- Is responsibility beneficial to an individual at maturity?-------
- Is responsibility beneficial to the international community?-------
One advantage of this scale is enhancing the possibilities of detecting and consequently discarding the answer patterns that are randomized due to the contribution of respondents who are uncooperative to the researchers (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Voluntary participation : In any study or research undertaking each participant should be made to understand the importance of the individual contribution and the advantage of participation up to the completion of the study. This is important towards saving the resources used in terms of finance, time as well as opportunity. However, the participant should be exposed to the fact that the participation is entirely voluntary with the individual having the option to stop participating at the most desirable point as well as time This discontinued participation should not be a resultant to penalties or the expected benefits that the participant is entitled to at the completion of the study (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
No harm to subjects of study: In a study or a research the potential probability as well as the extent of harm or an uncomfortable situation that may be anticipated should be of the same magnitude as to the ones that are encountered as part of the daily experience in life or during the occasional examinations done psychologically as well as physically. The researcher is therefore liable to fully explain to the subject and well in advance, the research objectives, the intended procedures, the expected risks and the benefits to the subject who should be satisfied prior to participation in the study. According to the ethics of a research, it is imperative that the potential risks that are posed by a research to the participant be eliminated for the well being of the individual. This in turn is fruitful to the researcher who will require the participation of the same individuals or similar ones in the future. The realization of the potential danger posed to the participants of a research is a potential deterrent factor to participation in any future research activity even if the chances of harm are absent (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Anonymity and confidentiality of research subjects: It is the responsibility of the researcher to clearly elaborate the actual context of anonymity as well as confidentiality of the participant well in advance prior to the undertaking. The actual steps intended to be in place as a precaution in protecting the real identity of the participant as well as all the information that could possibly compromise the results should be made clear to the participant. The safe storage of all the information collected is a sole responsibility of the researcher. The actual context of anonymity is the act of concealing the participants identity as appears in the research documents while confidentiality deals with the right to access the participants data as provided in the research (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Guidelines for reporting in research: The actual research report findings should be reported in an accurate comprehensive as well as transparent manner as one crucial research practice component. The actual recipient of the results of a research findings is an important determinant of the actual level as well as the scope of the contents of the report. The report allows for a careful review analysis and discussions which is important for the translation of the recommendations into the right action plan. An executive summary of the research findings is sometimes required by funding agents or bankers which is delivered in the form of a presentation together with an overview of the entire report. This gives the funder an independent opportunity for a review of the entire report. A well reported research findings is also a source of future reference to a typical research (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Factors influencing drinking behavior within college students: The most important aspect towards the success of a research in this field of study is basically to identify the trend of behavior that is a characteristic of individuals as far as gender, the level of academic class, the distance of the individual to the parents and the extent of religious affiliation of the individual are concerned. to achieve this the researcher has to make the best use of the available resources, to collect as much information as is possible that can be analyzed so as to come up with the desired results.
To achieve this, a clear set goals, aims and objectives has to laid down in a comprehensive and elaborate way. This is followed by an adoption of a methodology that will be put in place to enhance an effective data collection procedures to come up with reliable data that once analyzed the actual factors behind the drinking behavior among college students are brought to light.
Due to the limited finances and time at the disposal of the researcher multiple questionare are necessary so that all these factors are considered simultaneously. To make the research more effective and possible, the respondents may be subjected to the various scales responsible for the collection of data, which include the Guttman, the Likert as well as the Thurstone, among other scales. All of these being applied at the same time to take the advantage of the available participants and therefore saving the available resources in terms of time as well as the finances (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Reliability and validity of Grade point average, (GPA) as of measure of students intelligence: In the education sector, the examiner makes use of a grade or rather a mark as a standard when evaluating the performance of the student. The grade point average, abbreviated as GPA is a quantitative expression of the evaluation of a student in a numerical calculation. This quantitative evaluation of the students intelligence is the metric that the employers use as a measure of assessment as well as comparisons among diverse students. GPA is less effective as compared to a cumulative GPA which is a mean GPA for the total number of terms as compared to the latter which affects only one term. The marks or grades awarded to the students using this method are of little significance to the employer, because of their low reliability, and therefore consequently their weak validity, as a measure of intelligence as well as performance especially in the workplace. This so because ,the GPA are devoid of a predictive value as far as performance in the job is concerned (John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, 2006).
Apart from the weaknesses so highlighted, this evaluation system does not necessarily guarantee for the skills and competency of the candidate as far as the performance in the job market are concerned. It is therefore a weak and unreliable measure of the intelligence as well as the ability of the students and consequently, it is unfavorable to the employer.
John, W, C, Vicki, L, Plano, C, (2006), Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, Sage Pub. ISBN:1412927927, 96-224.